Commentary on Luke 23:1 – Exegesis and Hermeneutics of the Bible – Biblical Commentary

Then the whole multitude of them rose up and led him to Pilate.

23:1 Then the whole crowd of them got up and took Jesus to Pilate. – “Very early in the morning” (Mark 15:1). The day was Friday, the 15th of Nisan, between three and six. They had Jesus in their hands and they were hurrying to put him on the cross. It seems that the plan of the Jews was to end the “trial” of Jesus and take him to Pilate very early before the people realized what was happening (26:5). This action was of “the whole council” (Mark 15:1); that is, they took official action. Joh 18:28“and they did not enter the praetorium so as not to contaminate themselves, and thus be able to eat the Passover.” Ac 10:28; Acts 11:3. This was another act of hypocrisy, for they did not care about the crime of killing their Messiah, but they did care about ceremonially defiling themselves and not eating the passover (Luke 11:39; Matt 23:24).

Source: Commentary on the New Testament by Partain

Luke 22:66; Matt 27:1, Matt 27:2, Matt 27:11; Mark 15:1; Joh 18:28.

Source: The Treasury of Biblical Knowledge

Jesus is accused before Pilate, and sent to Herod, Luke 23:1-7.

Herod mocks him, Luke 23:8-11.

Herod and Pilate become friends, Luke 23:12.

The people ask for Barabbas, Pilate releases him, and Jesus is handed over to be crucified, Luke 23:13-25.

He tells the women who grieve for him, about the destruction of Jerusalem, Luke 23:26-33;

pray for your enemies, Luke 23:34-38.

Two malefactors are crucified with him, Luke 23:39-45.

His death, Luke 23:46-49.

his funeral, Luke 23:50-56.

Source: The Treasury of Biblical Knowledge

the roman governor Pilate he was responsible for collecting taxes and keeping the peace. It may be that he was in Jerusalem for court hearings, in a procedure called a “judicial inquiry.” This is likely due to the fact that others were crucified alongside Jesus.

Source: New Illustrated Caribbean Bible Commentary

PILATE. Pilate was the Roman governor of Jerusalem at the time of the Passover. Jesus was brought before him because under Roman law the Jews could not legally carry out the death penalty against anyone. Pilate has become a symbol of those who make religious decisions based on political expediency rather than truth and justice. Every believer must be careful not to compromise the Word of God due to selfish interests; he must always defend what is fair.

Source: Full Life Study Bible

Chapter 23

Accusation before Pilate, 23:1-5 (Matt 27:11-14; Mark 15:1-5; Joh 18:28-38). Commentary on Mat 27:11-14 and Joh 18:28-38.
1 Rising they all took him to Pilate, 2 and began to accuse him, saying: We have found this man perverting our people; he forbids paying tribute to Caesar and claims to be the Messiah king. 3 Pilate asked him, saying, Art thou the King of the Jews? He answered and said: You say so. 4 Pilate said to the chief priests and to the crowd: I find no crime in this man. 5 But they insisted, saying: Revolt the people teaching throughout all Judea, from Galilee to here.

The four evangelists state that the first accusation made against Christ before Pilate is not divinity, which is what the Sanhedrin condemns him for, but royalty: proclaiming himself Messiah. Confession that Christ had made in his life, because it was his mission. But deformed, by involuntary deformation or malice, that he forbade paying tribute to Caesar, when it was the opposite. Pilate, from the examination of Christ, sees nothing punishable. Pilate confesses Christ’s innocence three times (Luke 23:4.14-21; same as Joh 18:38; Joh 19:4.6). Jn’s narration gives the sense well. And here an interrogation of bottom similar to the one of Jn is supposed (Jua 18:15-38). Christ’s blunt answer in Lc turns out to be wrong if an interrogation is not supposed to specify it in the same way as in Mt-Mc. Pilate saw in Him an Eastern idealist. But they accuse him of “subversion” with his teaching. And by giving the volume of Judea-Galilee itself, they give Pilate opportunity for skillful maneuvering. He is going to forward it to Antipas. The phrase “I find no fault” was an expression of Roman jurisprudence, which terminated a sentence for lack of evidence (Stuhlmueller).

Christ is sent to Herod Antipas, Joh 23:6-12.
6 Hearing this, Pilate asked if the man was a Galilean, 7 and, learning that he was from the jurisdiction of Herod, sent him to him, who was also in Jerusalem at that time. 8 When Herod saw Jesus, he was very glad, for he had wanted to see him for a long time, because he had heard about him and hoped to see some sign from him. 9 He asked Him many questions, but He didn’t answer anything. 10 The chief priests and scribes were present, insistently accusing him. 11 Herod with his escort despised him, and out of mockery he dressed him in a white garment and returned him to Pilate. 12 On that day Herod and Pilate became friends with each other, for before they had been enemies.

Only Lc brings this story. But already in the description that Luke makes of Antipas, regarding the Baptist, he leaves this scene literarily prepared (Luke 9: 9).
Herod Antipas was the son of Herod the Great. From the year 4 (AD) he was Tetrarch of Galilee. He is considered the most intelligent of Herod’s sons. But he was a sensual and frivolous man. He sometimes went up, for politics, to Jerusalem to the festivals, staying in the palace of the Hasmoneans 2. Always?
Pilate, hearing that Christ “was,” that is, lived in Galilee, sees a good solution to exempt himself from that annoying matter for him, because recognizing the innocence of Christ, he sees in it an imposition and demand of the Jews, of the that he hated The Roman governors could not administer justice to their subjects outside their jurisdiction 3. But the case of Antipas was different, and the procurator of Rome could delegate to Antipas, also a vassal prince of Rome, his jurisdiction in this case, and in his territory .
Pilate hoped that Antipas would definitely take charge of the matter. In any case, he expected a declaration of innocence. Well, if there was a criminal crime, the tetrarch would have imprisoned him or died there. Apart from that, if he believed that he was going to sentence him to death, the accusation would fall on him, for showing little zeal for Rome.
The coming of Christ to Antipas greatly pleased him. The reason was that he had heard a lot about Him and “hoped to see some sign,” a wonder. He considered him as a buffoon or as a person given to occult arts, which amused the courts at that time. And so he “asked her a lot of questions.” But Christ did not reply. Christ did not come with his miracles to amuse, but to save. Antipas, who initially did not give importance to the accusations of the Sanhedrites, now, surely to get out of that situation, allows them to accuse him. But he ignores them. Christ’s vengeance is going to be sought elsewhere, less committed to him. Lc ordered to put on “a bright garment” (έσθητα λαμπράν), after he with his court “despised” him. Probably the latter refers to the fact that Antipas, with a derogatory phrase, managed to get his servile court to join him. The “shining garment” some think would be the type of the red chlamys (χλαμύδα χοχχί ‘νην ) that will be put on him in the crown of thorns 4, or a white garment, symbol of innocence, and here of ridicule, madness 5; for others it was a parody of the Jewish royal dress, which was white 6. From a passage in the apocryphal acts of the apostle Saint Thomas, it is deduced that wearing royal dresses is equivalent to wearing bright dresses 7. The meaning, then, of this clothing The ridiculous thing about Christ is to represent him, in his pretensions as Messiah King, as a mocking king.
And, from that day, Herod and Pilate became friends, for “before they were enemies.” The reason for this feud is unknown. Perhaps because Pilate had some gold shields with offensive Roman inscriptions placed in the ancient palace of Herod 8, or because of the slaughter of Galileans that he did in the temple while they offered sacrifices (Luke 13: 1). What is known is that Antipas was a “great person” to Tiberius 9 and that he served as a “spy” for his representatives I0. It suited Pilate to be right with Antipas. And he skillfully used the case for Christ to achieve a political coup with the tetrarch as well.
Dibelius claims that this scene in Lk is built on the basis of historical news, such as Luke 9:7-9 (Antipas fears and wishes to see Christ, given the miracles he hears from him); of Acts 13:1 (as sources of information), and what Luke 8:3 says (reports from the wife of Cusa, administrator of Antipas; Dibelius, in NTW pl 13ff). That Lc needed “sources,” is clear. Since the witnesses he cites are “historical,” they must report the truth. What is the last – in total nonsense – Antipas scene here for this story?
Bultmann says that Lc found the “legend” made. But he was able (!) to fix the chronology and dispense with Palestinian geography, with a view to the thematic development of his theology. However, he claims to rely on eyewitnesses and known “sources”; he even points out what this is for Herod’s material (Acts 13:1; Luke 8:3; Bultmann, in HST 273). But, if the story, as a whole, is already known by multiple eyewitnesses, known by the kerygma and by other gospels, why does it speak of “legend”? And if the story, therefore, is historical, why does Lc have to “fix” it? To be challenged by multiple eyewitnesses? And what is Le’s theological thesis here? Isn’t this just one more of Bultmann’s hypothetical constructions?

Continuation of the trial before Pilate: condemnation. 23:13-25 (Matt 27:15-26; Mark 15:6-15; Joh 18:39-40; Joh 19:1-16). Cf. comments on Mat 27:15-26 and Joh 18:39-40; Joh 19:1-16.
13 Pilate, summoning the chief priests, the magistrates, and the people, said to them, 14 You have brought this man to me as a troublemaker of the people, and, having questioned him before you, I found in him no crime of which ye plead against Him. 15 And not even Herod, for he has sent him back to us. Nothing, then, has done worthy of death. 16 I will correct him and release him. 17 he had to drop one for the party. 18 But they all began to shout together, saying, Take Barabbas away and let us go, 19 who had been imprisoned for a riot that had occurred in the city and for murder. 20 Again Pilate turned to them, wanting to free Jesus. 2I But they cried out saying: Crucify him, crucify him. 22 For the third time he said to them: What evil has he done? I find in Him nothing worthy of death; I will correct him and release him. 23 But they loudly called for him to be crucified, and his voice prevailed. 24 So Pilate decided to accede to his request. 25 He released the one who had been put in prison for mutiny and murder, as they requested, and handed Jesus over to their will.

Lc’s account, after Herod’s scene, follows in the manner of the other two Synoptics, except that it omits the flogging scene and the burlesque scene that the soldiers make to…

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